Archive for tallest

World’s 10 Tallest Buildings in 2016.

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on June 26, 2016 by vincentloy

It’s been quite some time since I last compiled a list of the world’s top ten tallest buildings. I think the last time I worked on that was about a year or two ago and I’m very sure that the data in that particular post would be inaccurate as of now due to the world’s high interest on building supertall skyscrapers in recent years. So, if you are looking for the latest and the most accurate list of world’s top 10 tallest buildings as of June 2016, this is the right place to be.

The list only includes buildings (structures that contain mostly habitable or functional floors) and excludes tv masts, telecommunication or observation towers, antennas, etc. This list also includes the buildings that are still under construction but have already topped out (reached final height).

< 1 > Burj Khalifa, 828 metres, 163 floors, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (completed in 2010).

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< 2 > Shanghai Tower, 632 metres, 121 floors, Shanghai, China (completed in 2015).

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< 3 > Makkah Clock Royal Tower, 601 metres, 120 floors, Makkah, Saudi Arabia (completed in 2012).

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< 4 > Ping An International Finance Center, 599 metres, 116 floors, Shenzhen, China (topped out, to be completed in 2016).

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< 5 > Lotte World Tower, 556 metres, 123 floors, Seoul, South Korea (topped out, to be completed in 2016).

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< 6 > One World Trade Center, 541 metres, 104 floors, New York City, United States of America (completed in 2014).

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< 7 > CTF Finance Centre, 530 metres, 116 floors, Guangzhou, China (completed in 2016).

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< 8 > Taipei 101, 509 metres, 101 floors, Taipei, Taiwan (completed in 2004).

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< 9 > Shanghai World Financial Center, 492 metres, 101 floors, Shanghai, China (completed in 2008).

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< 10 > International Commerce Centre, 484 metres, 118 floors, Hong Kong, China (completed in 2010).

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Burj Khalifa remains as the world’s tallest building, holding on to the title for the 6th year. It is also still the world’s tallest man-made structure and is likely to remain at the top of the list for another few years before being taken over by Kingdom Tower (now under construction in Jeddah) in 2020. Half of the 10 buildings in this list above are in China, further displaying the country’s massive economic boom and interest on constructing tall buildings. Also discovered from the list above is that for the next newly completed building to be able to be ranked in the world’s 10 tallest, it has to be at least 500 metres high. 500 metres (above 100 floors as well) is now the minimum mark to get into top 10 tallest’s ranking. Back in 10 years, 400 metres is the mark. Now, an extra 100 for that.

My beloved Petronas Twin Towers are out of the list since they are only 452 metres tall. They are now placed at 11th (and 12th) tallest. Goldin Finance 117, a tower planned for completion this year and nears topping out in Tianjin, China is currently on-hold and is awaiting funding. Its completion date is now pushed to end of year 2017. The tower is expected to reach final height of 597 metres (117 floors) and will be the 5th tallest once topped out either by end of the year or early next year.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

KL crossed a milestone by having 20 buildings in the city each exceeding 200 metres high.

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 19, 2016 by vincentloy

Not many cities in this world could have over 20 buildings that are each at least 200 metres high respectively. To make it into that list, I can only think of some mega cities like New York, Hong Kong, Chicago, Shanghai, Dubai, Tokyo, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Chongqing. And by 2016, my home-city, Kuala Lumpur will become the 10th city in the world to join the list with exactly 20 buildings that are each over 200 metres high in the capital of Malaysia.

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Yes, till 2016, only 10 cities crossed over this milestone and I’m quite excited that KL is part of it. We also love to build tall here in Kuala Lumpur, a trend that is particularly popular in rising cities in China as well as in Dubai nowadays. Having a lot of tall buildings in the city helps to create more city landmarks as well as enhancing the overall skyline. This also provides an ideal solution to short amount of land for development especially in dense urban areas.

Here below is the list of the current top 20 tallest buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that includes the architecturally topped-out buildings, but not including television or sightseeing towers. You can see the building in the 20th place hit the 200-metres mark precisely to help push the city to join the 10-city club as mentioned above.

1 & 2 – Petronas Twin Towers (452 metres, 88 floors each, built in 1998, former world’s tallest buildings and current world’s tallest twin buildings)

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3 – Telekom Tower (310 metres, 55 floors, built in 2001)

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4 – Ilham Baru Tower (274 metres, 60 floors, built in 2015)

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5 – Petronas Tower 3 (267 metres, 60 floors, built in 2012)

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6 – Maybank Tower (244 metres, 50 floors, built in 1988, former city’s tallest building)

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7 – Banyan Tree Signatures (240 metres, 55 floors, architecturally topped-out)

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8 – Vista Tower (238 metres, 60 floors, built in 1994)

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9 – Vortex Tower (235 metres, 58 floors, architecturally topped-out)

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10 – Felda Tower (216 metres, 50 floors, built in 2012)

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11 – Naza Tower 1 (216 metres, 50 floors, built in 2015)

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12 – Maxis Tower (212 metres, 49 floors, built in 1998)

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13 – AmBank Tower (210 metres, 50 floors, built in 1998)

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14 – St. Regis Hotel & Residences (205 metres, 48 floors, architecturally topped-out)

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15 – The Troika Tower 3 (204 metres, 50 floors, built in 2010, tallest city’s full residential building)

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16 & 17 – Berjaya Times Square Tower A & B (203 metres, 48 floors each, built in 2003)

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18 – K Residence (202 metres, 52 floors, built in 2008)

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19 – Lot G Office Towers (200 metres, 45 floors, built in 2013)

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20 – Le Nouvel Tower 1 (200 metres, 49 floors, architecturally topped-out)

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There are actually several high-rise buildings completed recently along KL Sentral region of which their height would be around 190 metres to 200 metres respectively. However, there isn’t a formal database to confirm on this. Some also speculated that the Le Nouvel Tower 1 (the 20th tallest) is actually 199 metres tall, and not 200 metres. Well, there is only a 1 metre difference..so let’s just get over it. In few more years, there would be several more much taller buildings to be constructed in the city, particularly the city’s next tallest building, the PNB 118 Tower that will go beyond 600-metres mark once built.

(Information above is correct as of April 2016. Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

More updated details for KL118 Tower.

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 28, 2016 by vincentloy

Finally, after months and months of speculation and secrecy surrounding Malaysia’s plan for the next tallest building of the country, more details had been revealed recently from the officiating ceremony. What is the project that I’m talking about? It’s the KL118 development. Now, it is renamed to PNB118 since PNB is the name of the owner’s company for this project. Well, I prefer KL118 more as it has more international appeal than ‘PNB’. Nobody knows (not only foreigners but also locals) what does PNB stands for.

Also known as ‘Warisan Merdeka’ (Heritage Independence), this development is located on a site just adjacent to the historic Stadium Merdeka and Stadium Negara. It is also located nearby to some very old buildings like Victoria Institution, Methodist Boys School (my former secondary school), Chin Woo Stadium, and Petaling Street (Chinatown). The project has been receiving heavy criticism due to its location on low-lying area which is also full of historical buildings and that this new modern supertall would not fit into this site context. I agreed. This project also receiving strong objection as the money put into this can be more beneficial for other purposes as the city does not need another supertall yet.

The iconic feature of this development would be the construction of an 118-storey tower, now named PNB 118 Tower. The final height of this skyscraper is still not confirmed but it is now fixed to be between 600 metres to 650 metres. Some sources said 610 metres or 630 metres while some even said it would be 644 metres tall which would make it even taller than the Shanghai Tower, the current world’s second tallest building. No matter what the final height is, this PNB118 Tower would still easily be the country’s new tallest building as well as one of top five world’s tallest buildings once it is completed. And it is announced recently that it is expected to be completed in 2024. Years ago, it is planned for completion by 2020 to coincide with Wawasan 2020 (Vision 2020) when the country would become a developed nation by year 2020. However, the project faced delay and it’s getting back on track now. It is now officially under construction.

The tower is designed by Fender Katsalidis Architects, an architecture office based in Melbourne, Australia which is previously famous for designing Eureka Tower in Melbourne. The design is also not that well received as many people commented that it is too simple, too glassy and do not possess timeless elegance like what Petronas Twin Towers achieved. I agreed to these opinions too. However, after its official rendering and an animation clip of the tower are out recently, some changed their mind and started to like the design. I’m one of them, but I still think that the design needs further improvement especially on its treatment to the top where it meets the spire. The spire is also a bit too long and out of proportion in comparison to the building form and volume. I knew it is just there to increase a substantial height for the building just to have it to be placed higher in the list of world’s tallest buildings later on.

So, here below are some new (latest) renderings, plan view and models’ images of the PNB118 Tower and also an animation clip for it by RSP Architects, the local design consultant for this project.

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Looking forward to see this new skyscraper dominating the skyline of Kuala Lumpur as soon as possible. Hmm…I suddenly changed my mind and think that KL needs a new supertall now since Petronas Twin Towers have been here for almost two decades already. However, it is undeniable that the twin towers are still elegant and remain as icon of the country forever.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

 

World’s Ten Tallest Cities (as of March 2016)

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 13, 2016 by vincentloy

It has been a long time since I last posted something about skyscrapers, a topic I’m particularly interested in the field of architecture. Today, I have a desire to compile a list of the world’s ten tallest cities. This list is determined by adding the top ten tallest buildings (not including mast / tower) of each cities and then divide the figure by 10 to get the average height of the ten tallest buildings in that particular city analysed. The ten cities with the highest score will then get into this list.

Well, there are quite a number of similar ranking to check on which cities are ‘taller’ out there by different people with different methodology (like the list of Emporis or Ultrapolis Project). This ranking is hence subjective, but the cities mentioned  are usually within the top too when ranked anywhere else too in terms of ‘tallness’. Now, let’s take a look at my list:

1.Dubai

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  • Country: United Arab Emirates.
  • Score: 411.2.
  • Tallest: Burj Khalifa (828m), Also the tallest in the world.
  • 10th tallest: Rose Tower (333m).

2. Shanghai

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  • Country: China.
  • Score: 356.1.
  • Tallest: Shanghai Tower (632m).
  • 10th tallest: Bocom Financial Towers (265m).

3. Hong Kong

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  • Country: China.
  • Score: 342.6.
  • Tallest: International Commerce Centre (484m).
  • 10th tallest: The Cullinan I (270m).

4. New York City

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  • Country: United States of America.
  • Score: 338.1.
  • Tallest: One World Trade Center (541m).
  • 10th tallest: Citigroup Center (279m).

5. Chicago

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  • Country: United States of America.
  • Score: 324.7.
  • Tallest: Willis Tower (442m).
  • 10th tallest: Aqua Tower (262m).

6. Guangzhou

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  • Country: China.
  • Score: 320.5.
  • Tallest: Guangzhou International Finance Center (438m).
  • 10th tallest: Bank of Guangzhou Tower (268m).

7. Shenzhen

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  • Country: China.
  • Score: 310.7.
  • Tallest: KK 100 Tower (442m).
  • 10th tallest: East Pacific Center Tower B (261m).

8. Abu Dhabi

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  • Country: United Arab Emirates.
  • Score: 300.2.
  • Tallest: Burj Mohammed Bin Rashid (382m).
  • 10th tallest: Regent Emirates Pearl (255m).

9. Kuala Lumpur

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  • Country: Malaysia.
  • Score: 288.1.
  • Tallest: Petronas Tower 1 (452m), with Tower 2, they are the world’s tallest twin buildings.
  • 10th tallest: Maxis Tower (212m).

10. Moscow

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  • Country: Russia.
  • Score: 283.3.
  • Tallest: OKO Apartment Tower (352m).
  • 10th tallest: Zapad Tower (242m).

The data above is correct as of March 2016 and only covered buildings that are completed/built (topped out buildings or the ones still under construction are not included in the calculation).

China conquered the list by having 4 of their cities in this top 10 ranking. That’s nearly half of the list. This list cemented China’s position as a leading nation in building supertall skyscrapers in their multiple mega cities. Dubai, United Arab Emirates topped the list as expected as the city is home to many supertall skyscrapers including the current world’s tallest building as well as man-made structure overall, the mighty Burj Khalifa. It is the only city in the world with all ten of its tallest buildings over 300 metres height respectively. The country’s capital, Abu Dhabi also managed to join Dubai in this list. The other country with two cities in this list is United States; New York City and Chicago (both are the birthplaces of modern skyscrapers). My country, Malaysia’s capital, Kuala Lumpur also managed to join the list at 9th position, while Moscow ended the list at 10th place.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

 

6 skyscrapers (beyond 400m high) that have architecturally topped-out and ready to climb to the ranking of the world’s tallest buildings.

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 8, 2015 by vincentloy

Many buildings constructed nowadays are mostly very high due to the worldwide interest on building tall as the trend helps to maximize the limited land space available especially in dense and highly-populated cities. However, till now, there are still not many buildings that cross the 400-metres mark in height. Till now, there is only about 18 buildings across the world that managed to cross that milestone. However, by next year, we would see at least 6 additional skyscrapers which would accomplish that too and be part of the official ranking of the world’s tallest completed buildings.

This means that these 6 buildings which are still under construction now have had already topped-out architecturally. Topped out means that the building has reached its final height but are still not completed in construction yet. These are the 6 buildings:

Ping An Finance Center, 599 metres, 115 floors, Shenzhen, China.

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Goldin Finance 117, 596.5 metres, 128 floors, Tianjin, China.

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Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre, 530 metres, 111 floors, Guangzhou, China.

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Wuhan Center Tower, 438 metres, 88 floors, Wuhan, China.

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Marina 101, 426.5 metres, 101 floors, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

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432 Park Avenue, 425.5 metres, 85 floors, New York City, United States of America.

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These extremely tall buildings are all nearing completion. Out of the 6 buildings mentioned above, the first four tallest are all in China. China is in full force now not only in their emerging global power in economy but also in constructing supertall buildings. Few years later, the country is definitely going to dominate the world’s tallest list (in fact, now, they already did). China is big and we observed many emerging cities like Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wuhan, Nanjing and Chongqing building skyscrapers aside from their already popular massive urban centres like Hong Kong and Shanghai.

(Images in this post are from forum webpages in skyscrapercity.com)

Where are the world’s 10 highest public observation decks?

Posted in Wonders and Places with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on September 13, 2015 by vincentloy

Have you been to an observation deck located very high above the ground that will enable you to observe amazing panoramic view of the surrounding area? An observation deck is defined as an elevated sightseeing platform usually situated upon a tall architectural structure such as a skyscraper or observation tower. Observation decks are sometimes enclosed from weather, as many skyscraper decks are, and usually include telescopes for viewing distant features. Some higher observation decks also existed on mountain peaks or cliffs, but these are not included in the list below which only mentions the current world’s ten highest public observation decks located on man-made structures.

  1. Outdoor Observation Deck at 148th floor (555 metres above ground), Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Additional note: Burj Khalifa is also the current tallest man-made structure in the world.

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2. Outdoor Observation Deck (488 metres above ground), Canton Tower, Guangzhou, China. Additional note: Cool ‘bubble trains’!

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3. Indoor Observatory at 100th floor (474 metres above ground), Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China. Additional note: The reflections are spectacular already when you are not even looking out for the view yet.

4. Observation Deck (451.2 metres above ground), Tokyo Skytree, Tokyo, Japan.

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5. Observation Deck (446.7 metres above ground), CN Tower, Toronto, Canada.

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6. Indoor Observatory at 103rd floor (412.7 metres above ground), Willis Tower, Chicago, United States of America. Additional note: Floating glass boxes…cool!

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7. Indoor Observatory at 100th floor (393 metres above ground), International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong, China.

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8. Outdoor Observatory at 91st floor (391.6 metres above ground), Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan.

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9. Observatory at 102nd floor (386.6 metres above ground), One World Trade Center, New York City, United States of America.

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10. Observatory at 86th floor of Tower 2 (370 metres above ground), Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Additional note: Can view close-up of its twin.

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Would love to visit all of them. Out of the 10 above, I have only visited the 8th one, the Taipei 101 Observatory when I was on a family vacation to Taiwan back in 2008. It was then still the world’s highest outdoor observatory in the world. Everything on the ground like cars appear as tiny as insects when viewed from the observatory floors of the building which was that time also the tallest building in the world. I still remember it was a rainy day and so the sights were not clear and we were surrounded by heavy mist at that height.

I do love to visit observation decks as those places allow me to enjoy breathtaking views of the surrounding city/town from a great height. We seldom get to see aerial view (we are not birds!), and so I do cherish every experience I had when visiting observation decks across the world. I have visited Eiffel Tower’s one too but it was another unlucky experience as it was also a rainy day and the view was not good. Hey…there is one in the top 10 list above which is so near to me and yet I have not visited before, the observatory in Petronas Twin Towers. Well, I’m a local and so there isn’t much surprise that we will not visit our own attractions. But if opportunity comes, I will try to visit it in near future too, just to get another good look of the city’s skyline from different perspective.

Our nearby KL Tower’s observatory at a height of 276 metres above ground is placed 20th in this particular ranking too. Not bad. And in my next year’s trip to Australia, I would visit another observatory, the Skydeck 88 in Eureka Tower (88th floor, 285 metres above ground) at Melbourne. It is ranked 17th highest while the Eiffel Tower’s one I mentioned earlier ranked at 19th with height of 276.1 metres above ground level.

Observation decks are certainly excellent places to visit unless you are afraid of height!

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

 

One World Trade Center officially opened yesterday as the current world’s third tallest building.

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on November 4, 2014 by vincentloy

After a lengthy 8 years of construction, the rebuild of the destroyed World Trade Center complex reached another milestone yesterday with the opening of the One World Trade Center building. It is the tallest in the master planning of the area set for rebuild after the 911 tragedy in 2001. Construction started in 2006 for the tower, which was once known as the ‘Freedom Tower’. After topping out in 2012 and spire installed a year later, One World Trade Center is now fully completed and has opened its door to the public yesterday.

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Occasionally, I would update construction progress of this tower from time to time in my blog here, just like what I did to other supertall skyscrapers in on-going construction currently like Shanghai Tower, Kingdom Tower, etc. I’m happy that it is now completed, which officially made it to be the third tallest building in the world currently. Skyscraperpage website updated its tallest buildings’ diagrams very quickly. You can view it here: http://skyscraperpage.com/diagrams/?searchID=200.

Some technical datas of the tower below:

Height: 541.3 metres (1776 feet) to top of spire. 1776 feet is in reference to the year of United States’ Declaration of Independence.

Height to top of roof: 417 metres. This figure is in reference to the height of the previously destroyed twin towers of the World Trade Center complex.

No. of floors: 94.

Architect: David Childs (Skidmore, Owings and Merrill). Master planning: Daniel Libeskind.

Total floor area: Over 3.5 million square feet.

Here are some few more most recent images of the completed One World Trade Center, standing proudly above the rest in New York City. It is the tallest skyscraper in Western Hemisphere.

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I am not really amazed by its design. It’s architecture is a bit too simple, and the very long pinnacle on top doesn’t really match to the building in proportion. But I am impressed with its massive height. I also like the clean facade of the building totally covered with glass that enables it to reflect the sky as though it looks invisible or transparent. Still looks good on New York City. The image below is breathtaking.

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(Images in this post are from Skyscrapercity forum web page on One World Trade Center topic)