Archive for ten

Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the World (as of April 2017)

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on April 8, 2017 by vincentloy

The two cities that witness the birth of skyscrapers are Chicago and New York City in United States. That was over a hundred years ago after the introduction of steel framed construction and passenger elevator that enables buildings to be built much taller. Now in 2017, only one building in United States that is placed within the top 10 tallest buildings in the world currently. The other 9 are generally all located in Asia. Here below is the current top 10 tallest buildings in the world as of April 2017. The list only includes completed buildings and does not include television towers, observation towers, masts, antennas or buildings with very little percentage of habitable floors.

  1. Burj Khalifa, 828 metres, 163 floors, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (completed in 2010).

2. Shanghai Tower, 632 metres, 128 floors, Shanghai, China (completed in 2015).

3. Makkah Royal Clock Tower, 601 metres, 120 floors, Mecca, Saudi Arabia (completed in 2012).

4. Ping An Finance Center, 599 metres, 115 floors, Shenzhen, China (completed in 2017).

5. Lotte World Tower, 555 metres, 123 floors, Seoul, South Korea (completed in 2017).

6. One World Trade Center, 541 metres, 104 floors, New York City, United States (completed in 2014).

7. Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre, 530 metres, 111 floors, Guangzhou, China (completed in 2016).

8. Taipei 101, 508 metres, 101 floors, Taipei, Taiwan (completed in 2004).

9. Shanghai World Financial Center, 492 metres, 101 floors, Shanghai, China (completed in 2008).

10. International Commerce Centre, 484 metres, 108 floors, Hong Kong, China (completed in 2010).

This list will change drastically from year to year due to rapid increase of construction of supertall skyscrapers in the world in recent decade. More and more new buildings are reaching further to the sky. Out of the current top 10 tallest buildings in the world, half of them are in China (this doesn’t even include Taipei 101 in Taiwan). 8 of them soar above 500 metres in height respectively too. Also noted is that every buildings in this top 10 tallest list has over 100 floors respectively. The tallest in the world, Burj Khalifa has been on the top of the list for over 7 years now. By 2020, it is expected to be defeated by Kingdom Tower, a skyscraper currently under construction in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. That tower is projected to soar above 1000 metres (1 km!) when completed in 2020.

The oldest supertall in this list is Taipei 101 which is only 13 years old by now as it is built in 2004. More and more new buildings are joining the list with two newcomers this year; Ping An Finance Center and Lotte World Tower at No.4 and No.5 placing respectively. Former world’s tallest buildings and still the current world’s tallest twin buildings, the Petronas Twin Towers are kicked out of the top 10 list this year as they are now placed at No.11 (and 12) with height of 452 metres. Too bad…my home coutry’s famous twin towers are now out of the ranking. Anyway, in few years to come, Malaysia will have another new supertall; PNB 118 Tower that will certainly join this top 10 list with a height of over 600 metres.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

World’s 10 Tallest Buildings in 2016.

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on June 26, 2016 by vincentloy

It’s been quite some time since I last compiled a list of the world’s top ten tallest buildings. I think the last time I worked on that was about a year or two ago and I’m very sure that the data in that particular post would be inaccurate as of now due to the world’s high interest on building supertall skyscrapers in recent years. So, if you are looking for the latest and the most accurate list of world’s top 10 tallest buildings as of June 2016, this is the right place to be.

The list only includes buildings (structures that contain mostly habitable or functional floors) and excludes tv masts, telecommunication or observation towers, antennas, etc. This list also includes the buildings that are still under construction but have already topped out (reached final height).

< 1 > Burj Khalifa, 828 metres, 163 floors, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (completed in 2010).

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< 2 > Shanghai Tower, 632 metres, 121 floors, Shanghai, China (completed in 2015).

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< 3 > Makkah Clock Royal Tower, 601 metres, 120 floors, Makkah, Saudi Arabia (completed in 2012).

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< 4 > Ping An International Finance Center, 599 metres, 116 floors, Shenzhen, China (topped out, to be completed in 2016).

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< 5 > Lotte World Tower, 556 metres, 123 floors, Seoul, South Korea (topped out, to be completed in 2016).

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< 6 > One World Trade Center, 541 metres, 104 floors, New York City, United States of America (completed in 2014).

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< 7 > CTF Finance Centre, 530 metres, 116 floors, Guangzhou, China (completed in 2016).

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< 8 > Taipei 101, 509 metres, 101 floors, Taipei, Taiwan (completed in 2004).

台北101, 台灣台北 (Taipei 101 and skyline, Taipei, Taiwan)

< 9 > Shanghai World Financial Center, 492 metres, 101 floors, Shanghai, China (completed in 2008).

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< 10 > International Commerce Centre, 484 metres, 118 floors, Hong Kong, China (completed in 2010).

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Burj Khalifa remains as the world’s tallest building, holding on to the title for the 6th year. It is also still the world’s tallest man-made structure and is likely to remain at the top of the list for another few years before being taken over by Kingdom Tower (now under construction in Jeddah) in 2020. Half of the 10 buildings in this list above are in China, further displaying the country’s massive economic boom and interest on constructing tall buildings. Also discovered from the list above is that for the next newly completed building to be able to be ranked in the world’s 10 tallest, it has to be at least 500 metres high. 500 metres (above 100 floors as well) is now the minimum mark to get into top 10 tallest’s ranking. Back in 10 years, 400 metres is the mark. Now, an extra 100 for that.

My beloved Petronas Twin Towers are out of the list since they are only 452 metres tall. They are now placed at 11th (and 12th) tallest. Goldin Finance 117, a tower planned for completion this year and nears topping out in Tianjin, China is currently on-hold and is awaiting funding. Its completion date is now pushed to end of year 2017. The tower is expected to reach final height of 597 metres (117 floors) and will be the 5th tallest once topped out either by end of the year or early next year.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

World’s Ten Tallest Cities (as of March 2016)

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 13, 2016 by vincentloy

It has been a long time since I last posted something about skyscrapers, a topic I’m particularly interested in the field of architecture. Today, I have a desire to compile a list of the world’s ten tallest cities. This list is determined by adding the top ten tallest buildings (not including mast / tower) of each cities and then divide the figure by 10 to get the average height of the ten tallest buildings in that particular city analysed. The ten cities with the highest score will then get into this list.

Well, there are quite a number of similar ranking to check on which cities are ‘taller’ out there by different people with different methodology (like the list of Emporis or Ultrapolis Project). This ranking is hence subjective, but the cities mentioned  are usually within the top too when ranked anywhere else too in terms of ‘tallness’. Now, let’s take a look at my list:

1.Dubai

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  • Country: United Arab Emirates.
  • Score: 411.2.
  • Tallest: Burj Khalifa (828m), Also the tallest in the world.
  • 10th tallest: Rose Tower (333m).

2. Shanghai

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  • Country: China.
  • Score: 356.1.
  • Tallest: Shanghai Tower (632m).
  • 10th tallest: Bocom Financial Towers (265m).

3. Hong Kong

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  • Country: China.
  • Score: 342.6.
  • Tallest: International Commerce Centre (484m).
  • 10th tallest: The Cullinan I (270m).

4. New York City

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  • Country: United States of America.
  • Score: 338.1.
  • Tallest: One World Trade Center (541m).
  • 10th tallest: Citigroup Center (279m).

5. Chicago

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  • Country: United States of America.
  • Score: 324.7.
  • Tallest: Willis Tower (442m).
  • 10th tallest: Aqua Tower (262m).

6. Guangzhou

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  • Country: China.
  • Score: 320.5.
  • Tallest: Guangzhou International Finance Center (438m).
  • 10th tallest: Bank of Guangzhou Tower (268m).

7. Shenzhen

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  • Country: China.
  • Score: 310.7.
  • Tallest: KK 100 Tower (442m).
  • 10th tallest: East Pacific Center Tower B (261m).

8. Abu Dhabi

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  • Country: United Arab Emirates.
  • Score: 300.2.
  • Tallest: Burj Mohammed Bin Rashid (382m).
  • 10th tallest: Regent Emirates Pearl (255m).

9. Kuala Lumpur

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  • Country: Malaysia.
  • Score: 288.1.
  • Tallest: Petronas Tower 1 (452m), with Tower 2, they are the world’s tallest twin buildings.
  • 10th tallest: Maxis Tower (212m).

10. Moscow

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  • Country: Russia.
  • Score: 283.3.
  • Tallest: OKO Apartment Tower (352m).
  • 10th tallest: Zapad Tower (242m).

The data above is correct as of March 2016 and only covered buildings that are completed/built (topped out buildings or the ones still under construction are not included in the calculation).

China conquered the list by having 4 of their cities in this top 10 ranking. That’s nearly half of the list. This list cemented China’s position as a leading nation in building supertall skyscrapers in their multiple mega cities. Dubai, United Arab Emirates topped the list as expected as the city is home to many supertall skyscrapers including the current world’s tallest building as well as man-made structure overall, the mighty Burj Khalifa. It is the only city in the world with all ten of its tallest buildings over 300 metres height respectively. The country’s capital, Abu Dhabi also managed to join Dubai in this list. The other country with two cities in this list is United States; New York City and Chicago (both are the birthplaces of modern skyscrapers). My country, Malaysia’s capital, Kuala Lumpur also managed to join the list at 9th position, while Moscow ended the list at 10th place.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

 

Emporis Skyscraper Award 2014.

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on October 1, 2015 by vincentloy

The annual Emporis Skyscraper Award is back. If you have a particular interest in skyscrapers like me, then you should probably know the existence of this award. Emporis is a large database famous for its collection of information and photographs of highrise buildings across the world. The company also stored data of low-rise buildings and other man-made structures. Its skyscraper award which is one of the world’s most renowned architectural prize for skyscrapers is presented out annually to honour buildings with architectural excellence.

For this year’s award, the winning buildings must be completed in the previous calendar year (2014) and shall be of at least 100 metres high. The winner of the 2014 Emporis Skyscraper Award is Wangjing SOHO building located in Beijing, China. Chosen from over 300 skyscrapers built in 2014, Wangjing SOHO emerged as the prestigious winner.  The complex consisting of three unique skyscrapers with a height of 118 meter, 127 meter and 200 meter each, impressed the jury by its excellent energy efficiency and its distinctive design, which gives the complex a harmonious and organic momentum. The soft and fluid forms were designed by Zaha Hadid Architects, making Wangjing SOHO an architectural landmark of the metropolis Beijing. This complex of buildings do really look spectacular and very futuristic-looking. Zaha Hadid is always good in producing this kind of designs. Her style…

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Second-placed Bosco Verticale (“vertical forest”), however, stands out through its “green” architecture, which marks a milestone in the field of sustainable construction. The facade and balconies of the two towers designed by Boeri Studio are covered with more than 700 trees and 90 different species of plants, which help to reduce smog and attenuate noise, while simultaneously producing oxygen and controlling the temperature inside the 105 meter and 78 meter tall towers.

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The expert jury voted Tour D2 in Courbevoie into third place. Its elegant shape is defined by an external diagrid structure that spans the 171 meter tall oval tower in full height: The extravagant diamond design gives the skyscraper its characteristic appearance and makes the facade sparkle in the sunlight. On the roof, the steel mesh merges together to form an imposing dome above what is called the “Cloud Garden”, a 500m2 large green oasis in the heart of the business center.

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Here’s below is the full list of Top 10 skyscrapers voted for Emporis Skyscraper Award 2014:

emporis award 2014

Although often represented in the Top Ten, Wangjing SOHO is the first time China manages to take the crown, since the Emporis Skyscraper Award was established in the year 2000 (fifteen years ago). Surprisingly there is not a single Canadian building among the winners this year, even with Toronto being one of the cities with the most new high-rise and skyscraper projects. Nevertheless, there is cause for celebration for North America: After the United States – the cradle of high-rise architecture – had been left empty handed two years in a row, this year two projects from New York made it into the Top Ten of the sought-after architecture prize. The iconic One World Trade Center made it to the list. I’m also surprised that my country, Malaysia made it into the Top 10 list too this time around with KKR Tower placed at No.10. It is a twisting (but the degree of twisting is not much disappointingly) office building located in my city, Kuala Lumpur. (image below)

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I guess my city’s newly completed Ilham Baru Tower (274 metres tall and to be finished by this year) will be able to shine in this award next year. When choosing the winners, height records hardly play any role. Hence, only three “supertalls” (skyscrapers with a height of at least 300m) made it to the Top Ten this year. Instead of following the principle of “Bigger, Higher, Faster”, the jury put its emphasis on other qualities: “The results of recent years clearly show that criteria such as sustainability, efficiency and a clever design play a much more important role than reaching new superlatives”, says Daniel Schuldt, Emporis’ managing director.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

(Information source: http://www.emporis.com)

Where are the world’s 10 highest public observation decks?

Posted in Wonders and Places with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on September 13, 2015 by vincentloy

Have you been to an observation deck located very high above the ground that will enable you to observe amazing panoramic view of the surrounding area? An observation deck is defined as an elevated sightseeing platform usually situated upon a tall architectural structure such as a skyscraper or observation tower. Observation decks are sometimes enclosed from weather, as many skyscraper decks are, and usually include telescopes for viewing distant features. Some higher observation decks also existed on mountain peaks or cliffs, but these are not included in the list below which only mentions the current world’s ten highest public observation decks located on man-made structures.

  1. Outdoor Observation Deck at 148th floor (555 metres above ground), Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Additional note: Burj Khalifa is also the current tallest man-made structure in the world.

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2. Outdoor Observation Deck (488 metres above ground), Canton Tower, Guangzhou, China. Additional note: Cool ‘bubble trains’!

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3. Indoor Observatory at 100th floor (474 metres above ground), Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China. Additional note: The reflections are spectacular already when you are not even looking out for the view yet.

4. Observation Deck (451.2 metres above ground), Tokyo Skytree, Tokyo, Japan.

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5. Observation Deck (446.7 metres above ground), CN Tower, Toronto, Canada.

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6. Indoor Observatory at 103rd floor (412.7 metres above ground), Willis Tower, Chicago, United States of America. Additional note: Floating glass boxes…cool!

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7. Indoor Observatory at 100th floor (393 metres above ground), International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong, China.

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8. Outdoor Observatory at 91st floor (391.6 metres above ground), Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan.

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9. Observatory at 102nd floor (386.6 metres above ground), One World Trade Center, New York City, United States of America.

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10. Observatory at 86th floor of Tower 2 (370 metres above ground), Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Additional note: Can view close-up of its twin.

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Would love to visit all of them. Out of the 10 above, I have only visited the 8th one, the Taipei 101 Observatory when I was on a family vacation to Taiwan back in 2008. It was then still the world’s highest outdoor observatory in the world. Everything on the ground like cars appear as tiny as insects when viewed from the observatory floors of the building which was that time also the tallest building in the world. I still remember it was a rainy day and so the sights were not clear and we were surrounded by heavy mist at that height.

I do love to visit observation decks as those places allow me to enjoy breathtaking views of the surrounding city/town from a great height. We seldom get to see aerial view (we are not birds!), and so I do cherish every experience I had when visiting observation decks across the world. I have visited Eiffel Tower’s one too but it was another unlucky experience as it was also a rainy day and the view was not good. Hey…there is one in the top 10 list above which is so near to me and yet I have not visited before, the observatory in Petronas Twin Towers. Well, I’m a local and so there isn’t much surprise that we will not visit our own attractions. But if opportunity comes, I will try to visit it in near future too, just to get another good look of the city’s skyline from different perspective.

Our nearby KL Tower’s observatory at a height of 276 metres above ground is placed 20th in this particular ranking too. Not bad. And in my next year’s trip to Australia, I would visit another observatory, the Skydeck 88 in Eureka Tower (88th floor, 285 metres above ground) at Melbourne. It is ranked 17th highest while the Eiffel Tower’s one I mentioned earlier ranked at 19th with height of 276.1 metres above ground level.

Observation decks are certainly excellent places to visit unless you are afraid of height!

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

 

Where are the world’s 10 largest hotels?

Posted in Wonders and Places with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on September 8, 2015 by vincentloy

Just a few days ago, I have blogged about the top ten world’s best airports. Today, I felt like doing another top ten list in my blog here and the first thing that came to my mind is hotel. Did you notice that the subjects are all related to vacation? First is airport which is obviously a place you need to go before boarding a flight for a vacation, and now is hotel which is the place tourist would stay and rest during a vacation. My mind is all about vacation now. Can’t wait for my next oversea trip to Australia early next year.

So now, where are the world’s top 10 largest hotels? Can you make a guess? Largest here means highest number of rooms the hotel provides. Without wasting more time, here’s below is the list of the current world’s top 10 largest hotels:

  1. First World Hotel, Genting Highlands, Malaysia – 7351 rooms.

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2. The Venetian & The Palazzo, Las Vegas, USA – 7117 rooms.

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3. MGM Grand Las Vegas, Las Vegas, USA – 6852 rooms.

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4. Disney’s All-Star Resort Complex (Music Resort + Sports Resort + Movies Resort), Orlando, USA – 5524 rooms.

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5. Izmailovo Hotel, Moscow, Russia – 5000 rooms.

6. Wynn Las Vegas + Encore Las Vegas, Las Vegas, USA – 4750 rooms.

San Gorgonio Pass, Palm Springs, Wind turbines

7. Mandalay Bay + Delano + Four Seasons, Las Vegas, USA – 4426 rooms.

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8. Luxor Las Vegas, Las Vegas, USA – 4408 rooms.

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9. Ambassador City Jomtien, Pattaya, Thailand – 4219 rooms.

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10. Excalibur Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas, USA – 4008 rooms.

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Ahh…I’m tired of typing ‘Las Vegas’ again and again. Out of the top 10 largest hotels, 6 are in Las Vegas alone. Impressive. This small city, at the southern part of U.S. State of Nevada, is one of the most iconic and visited tourist destinations in the world. Hence, having many huge hotels in this city is reasonable I guess. It would be cool if I can visit Las Vegas some day. I can have a nice and relaxing vacation, try my luck in this city full of casinos, or even go a bit further to check out the ‘Area 51′. Haha…

This top ten world’s largest hotels’ list may be surprising to Malaysians as I believe many of us didn’t expect First World Hotel to not only being placed in this ranking, but also topped the list. Yes…First World Hotel at Genting Highlands, the entertainment complex at the peak which is only about 1 hour drive from Kuala Lumpur is the current world’s largest hotel with over 7300 rooms available. When the hotel opened its door about a decade ago, it has 6118 rooms and holds the title of the largest hotel in the world at that time. However, the expansion by The Venetian and The Palazzo in Las Vegas at 2008 ended the reign. And just by early this year, First World Hotel gets back the title when its Tower 2 Annex expansion is completed. The Venetian still holds another record, for having the world’s largest casino.

Out of the ten hotels above, the only hotel I have visited and stayed is obviously the No.1, First World Hotel which is just an hour drive from my home. I will always stay in that hotel when I go for an overnight trip to Genting because the room is cheap and the huge quantity of rooms available makes you no need to worry much on its availability. However, the room is very small (to make up for a LOT of rooms, hence the title it gained).

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

 

 

10 Most Iconic Skyscrapers in the World

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , on July 11, 2015 by vincentloy

Constructing taller buildings was a dream first fulfilled on Western cities like Chicago and New York City back in the olden days. Then, the other places followed particularly in Asia where many countries developed quickly from the strong economic growth. The result; we have thousands of skyscrapers built across the world in present day. Here, I would like to compile a list of ten most iconic skyscrapers in the world. The criteria or aspects I considered before finalizing this list are as follow;

(a) the building must be at least 150 m tall to be considered a skyscraper.

(b) the building must be instantly recognizable and is a national landmark, and if preferably a world landmark.

(c) the building must be an architecture wonder and an engineering marvel.

(d) the building must possess huge impact to its surrounding and the city’s skyline, very famous and often caught public/media attention worldwide.

(e) the building must be completed, habitable in most of its spaces and not be telecommunication or observation tower.

This list is very subjective, but these 10 buildings below that I picked are also featured in many previous rankings or polls done by the others on the similar topic. Now, here it goes for my personal 10 most iconic skyscrapers in the world (in alphabetical order, not in ranking):

BANK OF CHINA TOWER, HONG KONG, CHINA

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BURJ AL ARAB, DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

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BURJ KHALIFA, DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

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CCTV HEADQUARTERS TOWER, BEIJING, CHINA

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CHRYSLER BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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EMPIRE STATE BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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MARINA BAY SANDS, SINGAPORE

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ONE WORLD TRADE CENTER, NEW YORK CITY, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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PETRONAS TWIN TOWERS, KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA

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TAIPEI 101, TAIPEI, TAIWAN

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Breathtaking skyscrapers, aren’t they? The other ten that did not make the list but I would grant them honorary mention here too;

Transamerica Pyramid (San Francisco, USA), Willis Tower (Chicago, USA), John Hancock Center (Chicago, USA), Jin Mao Tower (Shanghai, China), US Bank Tower (Los Angeles, USA), 36 St. Mary Axe (London, UK), The Shard (London, UK), 2 International Finance Centre (Hong Kong, China), Kingdom Centre (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Shanghai World Financial Center (Shanghai, China).

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)