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Pritzker Prize 2017 Winner: Rafael Aranda, Carme Pigem and Ramon Vilalta (RCR Arquitectes)

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 2, 2017 by vincentloy

The recipient of this year’s Pritzker Prize, the world’s most prestigious honour to architect, is a little less known. The recipient goes to not only a single person this year, but three, who works under one office; RCR Architects. They are Rafael Arana, Carme Pigem and Ramon Vilalta. Well, it’s not about popularity and the ‘star’ appeal to win this honour. It’s about one’s significant contribution to the field of architecture to be able to receive this award.

Here are an article from Dezeen (original source: https://www.dezeen.com/2017/03/01/key-projects-pritzker-prize-laureates-rcr-arquitectes/) that introduces us to this award-winning architecture office, RCR Arquitectes:

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Rafael Aranda, Carme Pigem and Ramon Vilalta all studied at the School of Architecture in Vallès, and set up their practice in their home town of Olot, Catalonia, in 1988. Their work ranges from public and private spaces to cultural venues and educational institutions, each designed to closely relate to the environment of its site. The three architects started working locally, designing an athletics track for the town in 2000 before creating their own office in an old foundry there eight years later. RCR Arquitectes’ other projects in Olot include a private house and a restaurant.

Many more of the studio’s projects over the past 10 years have also been located in Spain’s Girona province, ranging from a winery to a kindergarten and a public theatre. Later the firm began building slightly further afield – completing an art centre and a museum in France in 2014. Often collaborating with other architects, the trio uses materials like recycled steel and plastic. The Pritzker jury described their projects as “beautiful and poetic”. “Each building designed by these architects is special and is uncompromising of its time and place,” said the jury citation. “Their works are always the fruit of true collaboration and at the service of the community.” “They understand that architecture and its surroundings are intimately intertwined and know that the choice of materials and the craft of building are powerful tools for creating lasting and meaningful spaces.”

See 10 key projects by RCR Arquitectes below, in roughly chronological order:

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Tossols-Basil Athletics Track, 2000, Olot, Girona, Spain

Looping through two clearings in an oak forest, the running track avoids the trees and is coloured green to blend with its surroundings. The natural topography of the site provides stands for spectators, while a small pavilion comprising two Corten steel volumes includes a bar and storage for the football field.

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Bell–Lloc Winery, 2007, Palamós, Girona, Spain

A descending pathway with angled steel sides funnels visitors down from opposite directions to the entrance of the winery. Once inside, the material also creates a vaulted ceiling over the wine production machinery and barrel storage areas, where gaps in the roof allow slithers of light into the underground spaces.

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Sant Antoni – Joan Oliver Library, Senior Citizens Center and Cándida Pérez Gardens, 2007, Barcelona, Spain

Situated in Barcelona’s dense Eixample district, this cultural venue was intended to break the continuity of its historic street. A bridging section of the front building – which houses the library – provides public access underneath to a courtyard behind, where a low-slung volume wraps around the edge.

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Barberí Laboratory, 2008, Olot, Girona, Spain

RCR Arquitectes transformed a former foundry in their home town into their own offices and studio. Elements of the original building, like crumbling walls and a steel structure, were preserved. They were then paired with huge expanses of glass to create light-filled workspaces.

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El Petit Comte Kindergarten, 2010, Besalú, Girona, Spain
In collaboration with Joan Puigcorbé

Gradients of colourful plastic create a rainbow effect across this kindergarten building. A courtyard at the centre lets children play outside in a protected environment, while the plastic allows coloured light to flood the spaces inside.

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La Lira Theater Public Open Space, 2011, Ripoll, Girona, Spain
In collaboration with Joan Puigcorbé

To form a covered public space for theatre productions, the architects built a slatted-steel box, with angled sides and open ends, over a plaza sandwiched between two old structures. The volume faces a river and is connected to the opposite bank via a bridge made from the same material.

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Les Cols Restaurant Marquee, 2011, Olot, Girona, Spain

Swooping over this restaurant is a lightweight structure made from thin metal pipes, with translucent plastic stretched across the top. The canopy evokes the experience of dining al fresco, and extends beyond the enclosed space to protect those who are actually eating outside.

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Row House, 2012, Olot, Girona, Spain

When renovating this house in their home town, the architects exposed the underside of its tiled roof and concealed circulation on either side behind thin vertical louvres. In the central space – illuminated by a giant glass wall at the back – contemporary insertions form a sunken kitchen and dining level, with two separate mezzanines for lounging and sleeping above.

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La Cuisine Art Center, 2014, Nègrepelisse, France

Tucked inside the stone walls of a historic chateau, rooms made from steel and glass wrap around three sides of the building’s internal perimeter. These spaces host exhibitions, conferences and workshops dedicated to the art and design of food and cooking, and face a central courtyard that is used for larger events.

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Soulages Museum, 2014, Rodez, France
In collaboration with G Trégouët

Contemporary art exhibitions are housed within weathering-steel boxes that cantilever slightly from a small slope. The galleries are linked by glazed corridors and bridges, forming a route through the museum.

After receiving this prestigious honour, this Spanish firm along with these three leading architects shot to fame immediately in world of architecture.

(Images and information in this post are from the following source (also stated earlier): https://www.dezeen.com/2017/03/01/key-projects-pritzker-prize-laureates-rcr-arquitectes/.)

 

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Frei Otto, winner of 2015 Pritzker Prize.

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on March 11, 2015 by vincentloy

Pritzker Prize is an award given annually to honour living architect or architects whose built works demonstrate combination of qualities of talents, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture. To summarize that, Pritzker Prize is the world’s highest award for architect, something that every architects dream of achieving.

This year’s winner for the prestigious Pritzker Prize is Frei Otto, a German architect. Unfortunately, he passed away just few days ago before the official announcement. He was the first to receive the award posthumously, and the news of him winning the award was actually informed to him earlier before his death. He was 89.

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Frei Otto, born almost 90 years ago in Germany, has spent his long career researching, experimenting, and developing a most sensitive architecture that has influenced countless others throughout the world. The lessons of his pioneering work in the field of lightweight structures that are adaptable, changeable and carefully use limited resources are as relevant today as when they were first proposed over 60 years ago. He has embraced a definition of architect to include researcher, inventor, form-finder, engineer, builder, teacher, collaborator, environmentalist, humanist, and creator of memorable buildings and spaces.

He first became known for his tent structures used as temporary exhibition pavilions. The constructions at the German Federal Garden exhibitions and other festivals of the 1950s were functional, beautiful, “floating” roofs that seemed to effortlessly provide shelter, and then were easily dissembled after the events.

The cable net structure employed for the German Pavilion at Expo 67 (picture below) in Montreal, prefabricated in Germany and assembled on site in a short period of time, was a highlight of the exhibition for its grace and originality.

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The impressive large-scale roofs designed for the Munich Olympics of 1972 (pictures below), combining lightness and strength, were a building challenge that many said could not be achieved. The architectural landscape for stadium, pool and public spaces, a result of the efforts of a large team, is still impressive today.

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Taking inspiration from nature and the processes found there, he sought ways to use the least amount of materials and energy to enclose spaces. He practiced and advanced ideas of sustainability, even before the word was coined. He was inspired by natural phenomena – from birds’ skulls to soap bubbles and spiders’ webs. He spoke of the need to understand the “physical, biological and technical processes which give rise to objects.” Branching concepts from the 1960s optimized structures to support large flat roofs. A grid shell, such as seen in the Mannheim Multihalle of 1974 (picture below), shows how a simple structural solution, easy to assemble, can create a most striking, flexible space. The Mechtenberg footbridges, with the use of humble slender rods and connecting nodes, but with advanced knowledge, produce an attractive filigree pattern and span distances up to 30 meters. Otto’s constructions are in harmony with nature and always seek to do more with less.

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Virtually all the works that are associated with Frei Otto have been designed in collaboration with other professionals. He was often approached to form part of a team to tackle complex architectural and structural challenges. The inventive results attest to outstanding collective efforts of multidisciplinary teams.

Throughout his life, Frei Otto has produced imaginative, fresh, unprecedented spaces and constructions. He has also created knowledge. Herein resides his deep influence: not in forms to be copied, but through the paths that have been opened by his research and discoveries. His contributions to the field of architecture are not only skilled and talented, but also generous.

For his visionary ideas, inquiring mind, belief in freely sharing knowledge and inventions, his collaborative spirit and concern for the careful use of resources, the 2015 Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded to Frei Otto.

Information source: http://www.dezeen.com/2015/03/10/frei-otto-is-2015-pritzker-prize-laureate/

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

Jackie Chan is now 60 years old. Blog’s post in honour of this superstar.

Posted in Miscellaneous with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on April 8, 2014 by vincentloy

Jackie Chan celebrated his 60th birthday yesterday! Couldn’t believe he is now 60. It would be weird if you didn’t know who he is. He needs no further introduction but I’ll just summarize a bit of his background on this post which is dedicated in honour of this wonderful person. Jackie Chan is a Hong Kong superstar, taking the roles of an actor, action choreographer, comedian, director, producer, martial artist, screenwriter, entrepreneur, philanthropist, singer and stunt performer. He has received honourable stars both on Hong Kong’s Avenue of Stars and Hollywood’s Walk of Fame.

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His popularity on both East and West of the world is undeniable. He is famously known for his acrobatic fighting style, comic timing, use of improvised weapons and innovative stunts in most of his trademark films. He is also highly famous for bravely performing all the dangerous stunts required in a film by himself. I really respect his passion and sincerity into producing truly ‘honest’ films. No doubles. I had been watching many of his films (mostly action-comedy, martial-arts based and crime thriller) from my childhood years onwards. I enjoyed most of his films.

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And do you know that he had been in acting career from 1960s and had now appeared in over 150 films, a record-breaking figure. Some of his films that are still my favourites after so many years are ‘Project A’ movie franchise, ‘Armor of God’ movie franchise, ‘Police Story’ movie franchise (particularly the one he shot the film in Malaysia with Michelle Yeoh and also another one named ‘New Police Story’ with Daniel Wu as the villain), ‘The Myth’, ‘Rob-b-hood’, ‘CZ12’. Also not to forget some of his great Hollywood films like ‘Rush Hour’ movie franchise, ‘Around the World in 80 Days’, ‘ The Spy Next Door’, ‘The Karate Kid’, etc. He is also a Cantopop and Mandopop star, having performed many theme songs for the films he was involved in.

Everybody knows who he is. His celebrity status? Hmm…I think he is by far the most famous living Asian person, having had success on his homeland, Hong Kong and also abroad, over at Hollywood. He is now 60 years old and I really admire his strength and effort on continuing to act and produce films (especially those that require him to perform stunts). I have heard previously that ‘CZ12’ is going to be his last action films (I was a bit sad that time but I think it maybe a right choice looking at his age), but then he still went on with ‘The Police Story 2013′, his latest released work. Happy that he won’t retire anytime soon.

In honour of his 60th birthday, he held a special charity concert on last weekend at Beijing. Many famous artists like Jay Chou, Wang lee-hom, Nicholas Tse and Leo Ku attended the event held at Beijing Workers’ Stadium. I’m surprised that he is not holding the event of his big day back at Hong Kong. I think now he is focusing more on works at mainland China. Well, happy birthday to him! Will never forget his immense passion and contribution to world film-making. Truly a legend and an international superstar.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web) 

Sir Run Run Shaw (1907-2014)

Posted in Explosive News and Results with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on January 7, 2014 by vincentloy

Hong Kong entertainment mogul, Sir Run Run Shaw (邵逸夫) passed away today at the age of 106. He is popularly known as ‘六叔’ (Uncle Six) in Chinese-populated regions in Asia Pacific. Still didn’t know who he is? Well, he was the founder of Shaw Brothers Studio, a very famous production company in Hong Kong and also one of the largest in the world. He also founded Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB), the dominating television company in Hong Kong from its start to the present days for almost five decades. Not as a mean of disrespect, but I have been curious all the time as I find his name in English is a bit weird (called Run Run Shaw). Anybody could answer me that? Anyway, that’s not important. His success story is more important.

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Without him, there wouldn’t be Shaw Brothers, the company behind many past successful Hong Kong trademark films. Without him, there wouldn’t be TVB too, that offers us countless of Cantonese television programmes and dramas since almost half a century ago. Under his leadership in the past, both Shaw Brothers and TVB had also been acting as strong platforms to produce many Asian superstars till these days like Maggie Cheung, Chow Yun-fat, Leslie Cheung, Anita Mui, Stephen Chow, Tony Leung, etc. As the ‘father’ of TVB and a pioneer of Hong Kong’s entertainment industry, his contribution was beyond boundary.

He was born in year 1907, at the time when emperor still rules the country. He initially started his business venture at Singapore to market films to Chinese community in South East Asia. That was in late 1920s. Then his business expanded to Malaya (now Malaysia, my country) with opening of over a hundred cinemas by 1940. He and his brother had also established Malay Film Productions in Singapore. That was his early years of success. By 1957, he went to Hong Kong which was the centre of the Chinese film industry at the time and established the Shaw Brothers a year later. From there on, he settled in Hong Kong. In 1960s, Shaw Brothers was noted as Asia’s biggest movie producer. In 1967, he co-founded TVB, the first free-to-air TV station in Hong Kong, and growing it into a multi-billion dollar TV empire. He had also established Shaw Prize, annual international awards  for scientists in three areas of research, namely astronomy, mathematics, and life and medical science. The prize, known as the ‘Nobel Prize of the East’ first started in 2004.

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He only retired in 2011 at the age of 104. To recognize and honour his contribution, he had been appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1974 and received knighthood in 1977 from Queen Elizabeth II and the Grand Bauhinia Medal (GBM) from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region government in 1998. He had also been awarded several honorary degree from various universities. In 2007, in conjunction with his 100th birthday, he was honoured with Lifetime Achievement Award at Hong Kong Film Awards. Just on December last year, he received the prestigious British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Special Award for his outstanding contribution to cinema.

I used to see him appearing on several TVB shows few years back, usually in awards ceremony and for the station’s anniversary gala celebration. He would be sitting on the front row (definitely) and was accompanied with former Miss Hong Kong pageant. In recent years, he was no longer attending these shows due to his old age. Well, he is certainly blessed to have live such a long and fruitful life. It’s so hard to live over 100 years old. That’s over a century. He must have witnessed a lot of things in his life. His death today must have been a heartbreaking news to countless Hong Kong artists whom individually found success under him. Nevertheless, his legacy as the ‘Godfather of the Chinese Silver Screen’ will be forever remembered. May he rest in peace.

(Images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web)

Pritzker Architecture Prize winner for the last three years

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on September 26, 2013 by vincentloy

Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually to honour “a living architect whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture.” It is founded in 1979 and is often referred to as Nobel Prize in architecture, hence symbolizing the prestige and top honour of receiving this award. I’m now dreaming of whether in future I could have the chance to win this architecture’s highest honor. It’s something very hard to achieve, but I will try my best.

Notable former recipients of this award are Philip Johnson, Sir James Stirling, I.M. Pei, Richard Meier, Kenzo Tange, Oscar Niemeyer, Frank Gehry, Robert Venturi, Tadao Ando, Renzo Piano, Norman Foster, Rem Koolhaas, Herzog and de Meuron, Glenn Murcutt, Jorn Utzon, Zaha Hadid, Richard Rogers, Jean Nouvel, Peter Zumthor, etc. I recalled the last time I wrote about this award was in 2010, when Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa (SANAA) won it for that year. Now, it’s time to highlight the recipients of this award from 2011 to 2013.

2011’s winner of Pritzker Prize is Eduardo Souto de Moura from Portugal. The prize was awarded for his work including Estádio Municipal de Braga (image shown below), the Burgo Tower in Porto and the Paula Rego Museum in Cascais. His buildings have a unique ability to convey seemingly conflicting characteristics—power and modesty, bravado and subtlety, bold public authority and sense of intimacy—at the same time. His design reinforces a sense of history while expanding the range of contemporary expression through beauty and authenticity of materials and construction.

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2012’s winner is Wang Shu from China. He is the first Chinese to win Pritzker Prize (second winner of Chinese descent after I.M. Pei).  His win is generally due to his “unique ability to evoke the past, without making direct references to history” and called his work “timeless, deeply rooted in its context and yet universal”. His architecture has been described as “opening new horizons while at the same time resonates with place and memory”, experimental, and as a rare example of critical regionalism in China. His notable works are Ningbo Museum (image shown below), Library of Wenzheng College, Xiangshan campus of the China Academy of Art and Old Town Conservation of Zhongshan Street, Hangzhou.

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The most recent winner of this Pritzker Prize for year 2013 goes to Toyo Ito from Japan. Unlike the previous two award recipients, Toyo is more popular and known for creating conceptual architecture, in which he seeks to simultaneously express the physical and virtual worlds. He is a leading exponent of architecture that addresses the contemporary notion of a “simulated” city, and has been called “one of the world’s most innovative and influential architects.”  Ito has defined architecture as “clothing” for urban dwellers, particularly in the contemporary Japanese metropolis. This theme revolves around the equilibrium between the private life and the metropolitan, “public” life of an individual. The current architecture of Toyo Ito is aggressively exploring the potentials of new forms. In doing so, he seeks to find new spatial conditions that manifest the philosophy of borderless beings. His notable works are Sendai Mediatheque (image shown below), Bruges Pavilion, VivoCity Singapore, Tod’s Omotesando Building, Kaohsiung’s World Games Stadium, Taoyuan International Airport,  Torre Realia BCN and Hotel Porta Fira at Barcelona.

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(All information and images in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web).

Celebrating Sammi Cheng’s 25 years in Hong Kong entertainment industry.

Posted in Miscellaneous with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on August 19, 2013 by vincentloy

For those living in Asia, particularly the Chinese, you must have heard the name ‘Sammi Cheng’. In case you don’t know, she is a Hong Kong cantopop singer and actress who has been very successful in film and music industry. She has been always referred to as a diva and has been one of the most prominent female singers in Hong Kong since the 1990s, the golden decade of Cantopop music. When I was a kid (in 90s), she is one of my favourite idols. I love to listen to most of her songs and most of her movies are my favourite too. Even in present time, whenever she is coming to Malaysia to hold a concert, I wouldn’t miss it.

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Her fame should not be questionable. It has come to my surprise that even some of my Malay and oversea friends recognized her. in 1990s, Cantopop music peak to fame throughout Asia-Pacific with many notable artists like the Four Heavenly Kings (Jacky Cheung, Andy Lau, Aaron Kwok, Leon Lai) while the females are represented by Faye Wong, Sammi Cheng, Kelly Chen, etc. Sammi Cheng has also been referred by media as Cantopop Queen till these days, furthering proving her popularity that never fades and cementing her position as one of the leading Hong Kong artists to date. She had also been famous for bringing in unique fashions to her dressings in her concerts.

Let’s look back at little bit of her history in the entertainment industry that spans approximately 25 years. Sammi entered the industry at a very young age of 16 by participating into a high profile new talent singing contest in 1988. Despite winning only third place in the competition, the sponsoring record company saw her potential and offered her a recording contract. From there on, her success began. She won her first major award, winning best new prospect award in 1990. In following years, she had been among the big winners of every annual music awards, having won ‘Best Sales’, ‘Best Cantonese Release’, ‘Best Hong Kong Female Singer’, ‘Most Favourite Asia-Pacific Female Singer’, ‘Gold Song Gold Award’, etc.

She also broke the record as being the youngest female singer to hold more than 50 accumulated concert nights in Hong Kong. To date, she had produced over 80 studio albums, 10 live concert albums, over 110 singles (songs) with over 30 covers and had hold over 130 concert shows. I personally like many of her songs (particularly romantic songs) and will frequently play her popular songs in present days too when current music couldn’t be compared to the previous 1990s Cantonese classics.

Well, she had been very successful in films too. Before involving in films, she had appeared in several TV series back in 1990s when she is still a newcomer. Her first film debut was in 1992, in ‘Best of the Best’ with Jacky Cheung. From there on, she had been actively involved in many films and had been paired with many other heavyweight stars like Ekin Cheng, Anita Mui, Leon Lai, Stephen, Chow, Andy Lau, Richie Ren, Louis Koo, Sean Lau, Tony Leung Chiu Wai, Tony Leung Ka Fai, Eason Chan, Cecilia Cheung, etc. Her most iconic and popular works are most probably ‘Needing You’, ‘Wu Yen’ (won her Best Actress Award in Hong Kong People Choice Award), ‘Love on a Diet’, Marry a Rich Man’, ‘My Left Eye Sees Ghost’, ‘Love For All Seasons’, ‘Yesterday Once More’, ‘Everlasting Regret’ (earns Best Actress nomination in Venice International Film Festival), ‘Romancing in Thin Air’ and most recently ‘Blind Detective’.

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Despite not winning any Best Actress Award in annual Hong Kong Film Awards (she held record for being the female with most nominations but without single win in the category), her performance in movies is always complimented for being relaxing and entertaining. I like to see her in movies. On her recent performance in ‘Blind Detective’, she did another amazing job. All to best to her in future nominations. I hope she will win soon. She totally deserves it. On the other hand, now I wondered why there isn’t a wax figure of her in Madame Tussauds Museum in Hong Kong or a star (handprint) of her in Hong Kong’s Avenue of Stars, since her popularity is no doubt apparent.

She had also been actively involved into charity and community works too. Her 25 years of contribution to Hong Kong entertainment industry which has left an immense impact to the whole Asia Pacific should be recognized further. I’m taking off a bit of my time to highlight on that here. And one more thing, do you wonder why I suddenly wrote a post about her on this day? Today is actually her birthday. She turned 41 this year. Never looking old, and body fit all the time. Amazing. Most of the other singers coming out in similar period with her back in 1980s and 1990s had either settled down, married, or retired, but Sammi appears to have not given up, never rests and still standing high. All the best to her!

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(All images and several information in this post are from various sources throughout the world wide web).

World’s oldest living architect: Oscar Niemeyer

Posted in Architectural Territory with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on July 28, 2011 by vincentloy

Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho, or popularly known as Oscar Niemeyer is currently 103 years old and would be celebrating his 104th birthday on December this year. At 103 currently, he is the world’s oldest living architect whom are still contributing to designs in his company through his sketches and explanations. He is a Brazilian architect whom had worked in the field for over 70 years, specializing in international modern architecture. He is a pioneer in exploring the formal possibilities of reinforced concrete solely for their aesthetic impact.

His buildings are often characterized by being spacious and exposed, mixing volumes and empty space to create unconventional patterns and often propped up by pilotis. Both lauded and criticized for being a “sculptor of monuments”,  he has been praised for being a great artist and one of the greatest architects of his generation by his supporters. Here below is a quote from the architect himself describing his approach in architecture:

‘It is not the right angle that attracts me, nor the straight line, hard and inflexible, created by man. What attracts me is the free and sensual curve — the curve that I find in the mountains of my country, in the sinuous course of its rivers, in the body of the beloved woman.’ 

His first work (Gustavo Capanema Palace with Le Corbusier) came in 1936 which is now over 75 years ago, and his latest masterpiece is the Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre in Spain on 2011 (this year). The latter is a big cultural centre which is ‘an open square to the humankind, a place for education, culture and peace’ (Oscar Niemeyer). In total, he has designed well over 80 buildings or structures which is an impressive record of his contribution to the built environment, particularly in Brazil and Europe. One more thing I wish to highlight is Oscar Niemeyer is the architect of a building in Malaysia, built back in 1980, which is the Penang State Mosque eventhough his contribution in Asia is very minimal.

Two structures which he designed and dedicated to himself are the Oscar Niemeyer Museum at Parana, Brazil and the International Cultural Centre mentioned on the previous paragraph. The former is a museum resembling an eye-shaped tower with ramp leading to it from the reflecting pond below as well as a rectangular gallery behind. The museum features many of Niemeyer’s signature elements: bold geometric forms, sculptural curved volumes placed prominently to contrast with rectangular volumes, sinuous ramps for pedestrians, large areas of white painted concrete, and areas with vivid murals or paintings. His major and famous works are as follow:

At this age and still helping on design contribution, he is often being criticized of the lower quality of his later (recent) works which is definitely affected by his old age. Anyway, the scale of his contribution to architecture is extensive and he can be considered as one of the fathers of modern architecture along with Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius. He had also won 1988 Pritzker Prize, the highest honour to an architect every year. Living for over a century which is seldom acquired by many others, his works and name as a great architect would be eternal. (His hands must be very shaking when sketching something, but his creative mind on design still presents)